Redlining maps are what made me aware that our country was constructed on and continues to be undergirded by racist principles. My response was to make these maps into art - with their own underlying messages - in hopes of bringing awareness to others.
Created after WWII, Roosevelt worked with the Home Owners Lending Corporation, HOLC, to create the Residential Security Maps indicating areas where people could purchase property.
Neighborhoods were graded based on their desirability. What factors determined desirability? There was a hierarchy of factors based on things like perceived class and perceived ability to repay debt boiling down simply to race.
"Blacks were largely blocked from federally-backed mortgages, not because of their incomes or credit scores, but because of their race. The division of neighborhoods into good and bad ‒ white and black ‒ persists in many Michigan cities and regions, with the Detroit and Saginaw areas among the most segregated in the nation today. Indeed, the term “redlining” stems from using the color red on maps to indicate low-income neighborhoods or those with African-American or foreign-born populations. Created after WWII, Roosevelt worked with the Home Owners Lending Corp, HOLC, to create the Residential Security Maps indicating areas where people could purchase property."
"Less outwardly visible, but also attractive to some such prospective homebuyers were restrictions written into deeds in some neighborhoods in this area that kept out anybody who wasn’t white. Their language said plainly things like: “Premises shall not be sold, mortgaged, or leased to or occupied by any person or persons other than members of the Caucasian race.”
This was a commission. Half of what I made on this commission was donated to the Urban League of Indianapolis.
The process or state of excluding or being excluded.
Racially segregated but ostensibly ensuring equal opportunities to all races. In the pivotal case of Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that racially separate facilities, if equal, did not violate the Constitution. Segregation, the Court said, was not discrimination.
"The policies created a country in which whites gained access to the wealth-generating effect of homeownership that largely eluded blacks. It’s largely blamed for the substantial wealth gap that exists today, with white households having, on average, 12 times more wealth than the $11,030 the average black household has."
1. take away possessions from someone
deprive of positive human qualities.
the state of being a slave.
the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart.
feel intense or passionate dislike for (someone).
I have chosen the cities because I have personal experience with each of them.
I was born in Minneapolis. I grew up in a suburb of Philadelphia. I live in Denver. My husband grew up in Saginaw. After that, I will work on Kansas City because that is where my children were born.
I have been asked to make a map for Indianapolis. After that will be Chicago, Louisville and St. Louis.
I bet the dominant culture never really thought that redlining would have negative effects.
But, in this article, it discusses the academic-achievement gap and the income-achievement gaps between white students and black and Latinx that were already very high even with a lot of attention, but with little success at fixing before COVID. Now they are getting higher. But, how is that related to redlining?
Do you know why there are such gaps? Black and Hispanic students live in poverty in many areas. Why? Many reasons abound, but it is called the racial wealth gap. When you own a home in a neighborhood with appreciating value, you can sell that home for more money than you bought it and make some money. If you have to rent a home you can't build wealth. That is obvious. If you own in a neighborhood that never appreciates, or appreciates at a very slow rate, it is much harder to build wealth.
So when a person of color was forced to purchase a home in a certain area that would never appreciate, that meant that they would never be able to build wealth the same way as a white person would.
White households in the U.S. on average have 10 times more wealth than Black households and 8 times more wealth than Latinx households.
Let's talk about the schools in the areas where the homes have less value. They pay less taxes. That means massive underfunding for their schools. Less investment for their children. Less AP classes, science, math courses and qualified and experienced teachers. Jump ahead 60-70 years when the issue has compounded. So, by 2009 there is a massive achievement gap between black and hispanics and white students.
This achievement gap does not just affect the household in which those people live. This affects the whole country. Yes, the dominant culture - the white people who instituted the maps and segregation. Their lovely segregated neighborhood system is backfiring on them. Why? The gap between white students and black and hispanic students deprived the US economy of $310 billion to $525 billion a year in productivity, equivalent to to 2-4 percent of GDP. Throw in a pandemic, and it can potentially get a whole lot worse.
American ain't gonna be great if it continues on this course.
The purpose of this course is to examine the African American experience in the United States from 1863 to the present. Prominent themes include the end of the Civil War and the beginning of Reconstruction; African Americans’ urbanization experiences; the development of the modern civil rights movement and its aftermath; and the thought and leadership of Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X.
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Antiracism is a transformative concept that reorients and reenergizes the conversation about racism—and, even more fundamentally, points us toward liberating new ways of thinking about ourselves and each other. At its core, racism is a powerful system that creates false hierarchies of human value; its warped logic extends beyond race, from the way we regard people of different ethnicities or skin colors to the way we treat people of different sexes, gender identities, and body types. Racism intersects with class and culture and geography and even changes the way we see and value ourselves. In How to Be an Antiracist, Kendi takes readers through a widening circle of antiracist ideas—from the most basic concepts to visionary possibilities—that will help readers see all forms of racism clearly, understand their poisonous consequences, and work to oppose them in our systems and in ourselves.
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Using stories from his own life, Tim Wise examines what it really means to be white in a nation created to benefit people who are “white like him.” This inherent racism is not only real, but disproportionately burdens people of color and makes progressive social change less likely to occur. Explaining in clear and convincing language why it is in everyone’s best interest to fight racial inequality, Wise offers ways in which white people can challenge these unjust privileges, resist white supremacy and racism, and ultimately help to ensure the country’s personal and collective well-being.
In this “vital, necessary, and beautiful book” (Michael Eric Dyson), antiracist educator Robin DiAngelo deftly illuminates the phenomenon of white fragility and “allows us to understand racism as a practice not restricted to ‘bad people’ (Claudia Rankine). Referring to the defensive moves that white people make when challenged racially, white fragility is characterized by emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and by behaviors including argumentation and silence. These behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium and prevent any meaningful cross-racial dialogue. In this in-depth exploration, DiAngelo examines how white fragility develops, how it protects racial inequality, and what we can do to engage more constructively.
Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time. New York: Dial Press, 1963.
Bates, Beth. Pullman Porters and the Rise of Black Protest Politics. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Cleaver, Eldridge. Soul on Ice. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.
Ford, Richard Thompson. The Race Card. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008.
Hunter, Tera. To ‘Joy My Freedom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Malcolm X and George Breitman. Malcolm X Speaks. New York: Grove Press, 1990.
Marable, Manning and Leith Mullings. Let Nobody Turn Us Around. 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009.
Shange, Ntozake. For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow Was Enuf. New York: Macmillan, 1977.
Tuttle, William. Race Riot. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1970.
Vogel, Shane. The Scene of Harlem Cabaret. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.